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Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery

Enforcement Pillars“Spending for the federal government’s two main immigration enforcement agencies – US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) – and its primary enforcement technology initiative, the US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) program, surpassed $17.9 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2012.  This amount is nearly 15 times the spending level of the US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) when IRCA was enacted.” (pg. 8)

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Originally published by the Migration Policy Institute. MPI is an independent, nonpartisan think tank in Washington, DC, dedicated to the study of the movement of people worldwide.